Cell biology has its beginnings in the first observations of cells through primitive microscopes and in the formulation of cell theory, which postulates that cells are the fundamental building blocks of life. Light microscopes showed that the insides of cells contained complex structures, such as nuclei, spindles, and chromosomes. The advent of electron microscopy in the mid 20th century brought the first truly detailed views of cell innards. Images revealed complexity at all observable scales, including cell-spanning networks of polymers, intricate organelles made of membranes, and a variety of micron- to nanometer-sized sacs and granules such as vesicles, lipid droplets, and ribosomes. (For a glossary of cellular components, see the Quick Study by Ned Wingreen, PHYSICS TODAY, September 2006, page 80.) Those structures are immersed in or part of the aqueous cytoplasm—the cell’s fluidic medium.